Objective: To estimate gingival blood glucose and its comparison with the conventional blood glucose testing methods in a periodontal population for screening of diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods: From the sample, 150 eligible patients were selected. The subjects to be evaluated were divided into two groups: Group 1 with Gingivitis and Group 2 with Chronic Periodontitis. Samples of gingival crevicular blood (GCB) and finger – prick capillary blood (FCB) were obtained randomly from all patients. Paired t-test was done for intragroup comparisons and Independent t-test for intergroup comparisons. Spearman correlation (r) was done to know the correlation between capillary glucose and gingival glucose levels.
Results: Of the150 subjects, 10 subjects were diagnosed as diabetic patients (3 in Group 1 & 7 in Group 2). There was a statistically significant difference present in the Plaque score and Gingival score with a p value (p value =0.004) of the diabetic group (having higher score than non-diabetic group). When GCB glucose measurements were compared with FCB glucose measurements in diabetic patients, a very strong positive correlation was seen, which was statistically highly significant (p value < 0.001).
Conclusion: Gingival crevicular blood collected during periodontal examination might be an alternative source for glucometric analysis, in patients exhibiting atleast one inflamed site with bleeding on probing for screening of Diabetes mellitus. A high degree of correlation in blood glucose estimation between Gingival Crevicular Blood & Finger Capillary Blood samples confirms the former to be another reliable source
Key words: Blood glucose; Diabetes; Finger capillary blood; Gingival crevicular blood.
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